Support of Amazon Ecosystem Conservation Program
Having defined "environmental conservation" as one of its Basic Activity Guidelines on Social Contribution, ITOCHU Corporation vigorously pursues environmental conservation activities, thereby contributing to the sustainable development of societies. Starting in FY2017, we have been supporting the new concept of "Field Museum," an ecosystem conservation program in the tropical forests of the Amazon promoted by Kyoto University with the National Institute of Amazonian Research.
Rainforests cover just 6% of the land area of Earth, but are said to be home to more than half of all species in the world, and thus constitute the ecosystem with the highest biodiversity on the planet.
The Amazon rainforest in particular in the world's largest, accounting for over half of all the rainforest acreage that remains on Earth. In the ten years from 1999, over 1,200 new species of vertebrates have been discovered there, although how they live remains unknown for many.
Sitting at the confluence of the Solimoes River and Rio Negro River at the center of Brazil's Amazon region, the major city of Manaus is surrounded by a particularly diverse and valuable natural environment even for the Amazon, and many national parks and protected areas lie nearby. However, that precious ecosystem is in the process of getting lost owing to the rapid expansion of the city. To solve this problem, research on and preservation of endangered organisms and their habitats, and the creation and maintenance of a society that is environmentally aware by carrying out environmental education for local residents based on accurate information, are essential.
The National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA) is the region's largest national research institute and it is especially renowned for its research on the biology of the Amazon, yet it is a fact that studies required for conservation and the training of researchers are proceeding too slowly. The new concept of "Field Museum" promoted by Kyoto University with the National Institute of Amazonian Research, which calls for joint conservation research and facilities development by using the advanced technologies that Japan excels at, is expected to dramatically advance conservation research on various organisms and ecosystems, including research on water-dwelling animals (river dolphins, manatees) of the Amazon and the upper canopies of the rainforest, which have been challenging to study until now. The aim of the new concept of "Field Museum" is to contribute to the sustainable development of local communities, not by means of conventional exhibits under glass as in museums, but by conducting research, conservation and dissemination activities that regard the region's nature and the very lives of people as beneficial exhibits, taking advantage of the location of Manaus in the midst of a vast and precious ecosystem. For ecosystem conservation in the Amazon, ITOCHU Corporation supports the project for releasing Amazonian manatees, which itself go in the direction of putting a stop to the loss of biological diversity defined as Goal 15 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).The program is structured as a collaboration between the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), which provides competitive research funds for science and technology projects, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which provides development assistance (ODA). Based on the needs of developing countries, the program aims to address global issues and lead to research outcomes of practical benefit to both local and global society.
Support activities for the Amazonian manatee
The Amazonian manatee, a large aquatic mammal in danger of extinction, is an endemic species of the Amazon River that is fully herbivorous unlike cetaceans. As the result of massive overhunting in the past, the population has plummeted, and though manatees are currently protected by law, they show no sign of recovering owing to poaching for their meat. Since 1972, the National Institute of Amazonian Research has been actively protecting and breeding Amazonian manatees, and the Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University, along with the National Institute of Amazonian Research, aims to establish a release program that returns rescued manatees to nature.
As the number of Amazonian manatees protected by the National Institute of Amazonian Research grew (reaching about 60 in January 2016) and holding tanks became crowded, a release program was launched in 2008 to return both rescued and captive-raised manatees to the wild. The biology and ecology of Amazonian manatees still not being fully understood, only four manatees have been released as of 2016 by the National Institute of Amazonian Research. Further, the captive-raised individuals that were released were found to have difficulty finding food on their own in the natural environment, leading to some individuals becoming weakened and getting rescued again. Further, the Amazon region has a rainy season and a dry season. The rainy season is marked by abundant rainfall, bringing an abundance of grazing vegetation and making travel in rivers easy, whereas during the dry season, which sees scant rain, river levels drop and many tributaries turn into land, restricting the movement of manatees. Even some wild manatees ending up stranded in parched areas have been reported to have died. The variety and amount of grazing plants are known to drop dramatically in the dry season, and captive-raised manatees who are unfamiliar with such environmental changes have a hard time adapting to the wild following their release. Thus to ensure the success of releases, methods that are optimal for manatees need to be developed and established. Further, new techniques for evaluating the manatees' adaptation to nature are also being developed based on observation of their post-release behavior. ITOCHU Corporation supports this program to reintroduce Amazonian manatees into the wild under a project called the Manatee Homecoming Project, and has established the following three-year performance indicators. This initiative is helping to put a stop to the loss of biodiversity defined as Goal 15 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
|Theme||Activities||Three-year (FY2017-2019) performance indicators||FY2017
|Return to semi-captive environment||Release of manatees into a semi-captive lake (Manacapuru) or a preserve established in a river (Rio Cuieiras).||
|Return to the wild||
|Providing environmental training for local residents and raising their environmental awareness||Raising awareness of biodiversity conservation among local residents through a project for returning manatees to the wild.||
Until Amazonian manatees return to the wild
The tropical forests of the Amazon constitute an area with a very high level of biodiversity. Above all, the upriver region of Cuieiras River is home to a wide variety of animals. In the Cuieiras Area, which is a biological reserve of the National Institute of Amazonian Research, a Field Station will be constructed in FY2018 as one of the main facilities of the Field Museum Concept. This facility will be a base for long-term monitoring research of animals and plants, covering the area from flooded forests to terra firma, and is the first of its kind for research into the tropical forests of the Amazon. It will also function as a facility that provides visitors other than researchers with opportunities to experience the astonishing variety of plants and animals of the Amazon.
As a means of biodiversity conservation, ITOCHU Corporation supports the Field Station and has donated 19 million yen to JICA for the construction and development of a facility (visitor center), including a cafeteria and an exhibition hall for visitors. The Field Station is expected to attract approximately 500 visitors per year. It will be a place for providing environmental education to local residents, helping to raise their awareness. In constructing the facility, a portion of the secondary forest will be selected instead of the primeval forest in the Amazon. The construction will proceed with full consideration of the environment, after INPA confirms the absence of rare species in advance through investigations of the site and government agencies grant the necessary permissions. These initiatives will enable opportunities to experience a wide variety of plants and animals and the richness of nature, contributing to the environmental education of both local residents and tourists. This is JICA's first industry-government-academia collaboration for conserving the Amazon's ecosystem.
Research themes currently planned
- Habits of electric fish and small fish
- Seasonal changes of underwater sound in rivers by using acoustic technology
- Return of manatees to the wild
- Investigation of habits of mammals and birds using sensor cameras
- Exploration of flora in flooded forests and other forests